While utopian political philosophers argue that correct political institutions can transform human nature into something more desirable or virtuous than its current state, Spinoza instead commences with a contrarian conviction, by and large rejecting such a possibility. Interpretation of the Conatus Principle Human nature, according to Spinoza, must be studied and understood just like the nature of any other organism in the universe, in the following sense; human beings are subsumed in nature along with all other natural organisms and cannot thus transcend, and are therefore subject to, natural laws.
The Modern Scientific Study of Religion. Derivation, analysis, and definition The derivation of the word "religion" has been a matter of dispute from ancient times. Not even today is it a closed question.
Cicero, in his "De natura deorum", II, xxviii, derives religion from relegere to treat carefully: But as religion is an elementary notion long antedating the time of complicated ritual presupposed in this explanation, we must seek elsewhere for its etymology.
A far more likely derivation, one that suits the idea of religion in its simple beginning, is that given by Lactantiusin his "Divine Institutes", IV, xxviii.
|CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Religion||Family and community origins[ edit ] His statue in Amsterdam Spinoza's ancestors were of Sephardic Jewish descent and were a part of the community of Portuguese Jews that had settled in the city of Amsterdam in the wake of the Portuguese Inquisitionwhich had resulted in forced conversions and expulsions from the Iberian Peninsula.|
|Spinoza, Benedict de: Political Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.|
He derives religion from religare to bind: Augustinein his City of God X. Augustine himself was not satisfied with it, for in his "Retractions", I, xiii, he abandoned it in favour of the derivation given by Lactantius. He employs the latter meaning in his treatise "On the True Religion", where he says: The correct one seems to be that offered by Lactantius.
Religion in its simplest form implies the notion of being bound to God ; the same notion is uppermost in the word religion in its most specific sense, as applied to the life of poverty, chastity, and obedience to which individuals voluntarily bind themselves by vows more or less solemn.
Hence those who are thus bound are known as religious. Religion, broadly speaking, means the voluntary subjection of oneself to God.
It exists in its highest perfection in heavenwhere the angels and saints lovepraise, and adore Godand live in absolute conformity to His holy will.
It does not exist at all in hellwhere the subordination of rational creatures to their Creator is one not of free willbut of physical necessity. On earth it is practically coextensive with the human racethough, where it has not been elevated to the supernatural plane through Divine revelationit labours under serious defects.
It is with religion as affecting the life of man on earth that this article deals. The analysis of the idea of religion shows that it is very complex, and rests on several fundamental conceptions. It implies first of all the recognition of a Divine personality in and behind the forces of nature, the Lord and Ruler of the world, God.
In the highest religions, this supernatural Being is conceived as a spirit, one and indivisible, everywhere present in nature, but distinct from it. In the lower religions, the various phenomena of nature are associated with a number of distinct personalities, though it is rare that among these numerous nature-deities one is not honoured as supreme.
Ethical qualities corresponding to the prevailing ethical standards, are attributed by the different peoples to their respective deities.
In every form of religion is implied the conviction that the mysterious, supernatural Being or beings has control over the lives and destinies of men.
Especially in lower grades of culture, where the nature and utilization of physical laws is but feebly understood, man feels in many ways his helplessness in the presence of the forces of nature: There thus arises in the natural order a sense of dependence on the Deity, deeply felt need of Divine help.
This lies at the basis of religion. Still it is not the recognition of dependence on God that constitutes the very essence of religion, indispensable as it is. The damned recognize their dependence on Godbut, being without hope of Divine help, are turned from, rather than towards, Him.
Coupled with the sense of need is the persuasion on the part of man that he can bring himself into friendly, beneficent communion with the Deity or deities on whom he feels he depends.
He is a creature of hope. Feeling his helplessness and need of Divine assistance, pressed down, perhaps, by sickness, loss, and defeat, recognizing that in friendly communion with the Deity he can find aid, peace, and happinesshe is led voluntarily to perform certain acts of homage meant to bring about this desired result.
What man aims at in religion is communion with the Deity, in which he hopes to attain his happiness and perfection. This perfection is but crudely conceived in lower religions.
Conformity to the recognized moral standard, which is generally low, is not wholly neglected, but it is less an object of solicitude than material welfare. The sum of happiness looked for is prosperity in the present life and a continuation of the same bodily comforts in the life to come.
In the higher religions, the perfection sought in religion becomes more intimately associated with moral goodness. In Christianitythe highest of religions, communion with God implies spiritual perfection of the highest possible kind, the participation in the supernatural life of grace as the children of God.The New Doc Savage Movie Idea Page.
[email protected] Archived Doc Savage Pulp Reviews. Page One Of Seven. - The Man Of Bronze - The Land Of Terror. Mr Proffitt's Jekyll and Hyde Quotations.
> idea that our evil sides are an inseparable part of being human. Jekyll fails to separate from Hyde entirely because no human can escape their innate vices/sin (original sin) This, as I take it, was because all human beings, as we meet them, are commingled out of good and evil; and Edward Hyde.
The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception Chapter XII Evolution on the Earth. The Polarian Epoch. While the material which now forms the Earth was yet a part of the Sun, it was, of course in a fiery condition; but as the fire does not burn spirit, our human evolution commenced at once, being confined particularly to the Polar Region of the Sun..
The highest evolved beings which were to become human. Golding's underlying argument is that human beings are savage by nature, and are moved by primal urges toward selfishness, brutality, and dominance over others.
Though the boys think the beast lives in the jungle, Golding makes it clear that it lurks only in their hearts. Immanuel Kant: Radical Evil. The subject of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy of religion has received more attention in the beginning of the 21 st century than it did in Kant’s own time.
Religion was an unavoidable topic for Kant since it addresses the ultimate questions of metaphysics and morality. Yes human nature is savage. As nature tends to keep revealing to us, human nature has always be savage. In history of humans, one human had always wanted to be on top, and it seems they are willing to kill and destroy in order to achieve it.