When Jennie was two, her mother, Sarah, died whilst giving birth to her ninth child. As a result, Addams formed a significant bond with her father, John, who was a successful mill owner and politician. John Addams corresponded with Lincoln, and Jane Addams associated her father and Lincoln as moral icons and personal inspirations throughout her life.
Darwin, therefore, argued that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have universal cross-cultural counterparts. Darwin also detailed the virtues of experiencing emotions and the parallel experiences that occur in animals.
This led the way for animal research on emotions and the eventual determination of the neural underpinnings of emotion. Contemporary More contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.
MacLean claims that emotion competes with even more instinctive responses, on one hand, and the more abstract reasoning, on the other hand. The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were derived from these perspectives in the s by Joseph E.
Research on social emotion also focuses on the physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans see affect display. For example, spite seems to work against the individual but it can establish an individual's reputation as someone to be feared.
The first modern version of such theories came from William James in the s. LeDoux  and Robert Zajonc  who are able to appeal to neurological evidence. James—Lange theory In his article  William James argued that feelings and emotions were secondary to physiological phenomena.
In his theory, James proposed that the perception of what he called an "exciting fact" directly led to a physiological response, known as "emotion. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, and therefore this theory became known as the James—Lange theory.
As James wrote, "the perception of bodily changes, as they occur, is the emotion. An emotion-evoking stimulus snake triggers a pattern of physiological response increased heart rate, faster breathing, etc.
This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state induces a desired emotional state.
Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity. Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified James—Lange view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion.
Cannon—Bard theory Walter Bradford Cannon agreed that physiological responses played a crucial role in emotions, but did not believe that physiological responses alone could explain subjective emotional experiences.
He argued that physiological responses were too slow and often imperceptible and this could not account for the relatively rapid and intense subjective awareness of emotion. An emotion-evoking event snake triggers simultaneously both a physiological response and a conscious experience of an emotion.
Phillip Bard contributed to the theory with his work on animals. Bard found that sensory, motor, and physiological information all had to pass through the diencephalon particularly the thalamusbefore being subjected to any further processing.
Therefore, Cannon also argued that it was not anatomically possible for sensory events to trigger a physiological response prior to triggering conscious awareness and emotional stimuli had to trigger both physiological and experiential aspects of emotion simultaneously. Schachter did agree that physiological reactions played a big role in emotions.
He suggested that physiological reactions contributed to emotional experience by facilitating a focused cognitive appraisal of a given physiologically arousing event and that this appraisal was what defined the subjective emotional experience. Emotions were thus a result of two-stage process: For example, the physiological arousal, heart pounding, in a response to an evoking stimulus, the sight of a bear in the kitchen.
The brain then quickly scans the area, to explain the pounding, and notices the bear. Consequently, the brain interprets the pounding heart as being the result of fearing the bear.
Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation a confederate displayed that emotion. Hence, the combination of the appraisal of the situation cognitive and the participants' reception of adrenaline or a placebo together determined the response.
This experiment has been criticized in Jesse Prinz's Gut Reactions.Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around Its origins are often attributed to the philosophers William James, John Dewey, and Charles Sanders plombier-nemours.com later described it in his pragmatic maxim: "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your plombier-nemours.com, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object.".
The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a series of 20 lectures on ‘natural religion’ that psychologist William James conducted at the . Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (b. , d. ) was a profound and prolific writer in the Danish “golden age” of intellectual and artistic activity.
Jane Addams (—) Jane Addams was an activist and prolific writer in the American Pragmatist tradition who became a nationally recognized leader of Progressivism in the United States as well as an internationally renowned peace advocate. Start studying William James and Pragmatism.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. William James. Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking. New York: Longman Green and Co., the ultimate test for us of what a truth means is the conduct it dictates or inspires.” Certainly, one difﬁculty in understanding James lies in the interpretation of his rhetorical ﬂourishes.
“Pragmatic Theory of Truth.