Intelligence Key Points to Consider Giving a definition is not just copying what has been written in other dictionaries. If you cannot define a new meaning for some concept on your own, then use the definition that already exists, but give your own interpretation of it. Choose terms you understand, or ones that have impacted your own personal experience.
A socialism emancipated from democracy. A trade unionism free of the chains of the class struggle had imposed on Italian labour. A methodical and successful will to bring together in a same fascio all the human factors of national production A determination to approach, to threat, to resolve the worker question in itself He uses the term "Ur-fascism" as a generic description of different historical forms of fascism.
The fourteen properties are as follows: When all truth has already been revealed by Tradition, no new learning can occur, only further interpretation and refinement. Eco distinguishes this from a rejection of superficial technological advancement, as many fascist regimes cite their industrial potency as proof of the vitality of their system.
This, says Eco, is connected with anti-intellectualism and irrationalismand often manifests in attacks on modern culture and science. This often combines an appeal to xenophobia with a fear of disloyalty and sabotage from marginalized groups living within the society such as the German elite's 'fear' of the s Jewish populace's businesses and well-doings; see also anti-Semitism.
Fascist societies rhetorically cast their enemies as "at the same time too strong and too weak. On the other hand, fascist leaders point to the decadence of those elites as proof of their ultimate feebleness in the face of an overwhelming popular will.
Both fascist Germany under Hitler and Italy under Mussolini worked first to organize and clean up their respective countries and then build the war machines that they later intended to and did use, despite Germany being under restrictions of the Versailles treaty to NOT build a military force.
This principle leads to a fundamental contradiction within fascism: Eco sees in these attitudes the root of a deep tension in the fundamentally hierarchical structure of fascist polities, as they encourage leaders to despise their underlings, up to the ultimate Leader who holds the whole country in contempt for having allowed him to overtake it by force.
As Eco observes, "[t]he Ur-Fascist hero is impatient to die. In his impatience, he more frequently sends other people to death. Fascists thus hold "both disdain for women and intolerance and condemnation of nonstandard sexual habits, from chastity to homosexuality.
As no mass of people can ever be truly unanimous, the Leader holds himself out as the interpreter of the popular will though truly he dictates it. Fascists use this concept to delegitimize democratic institutions they accuse of "no longer represent[ing] the Voice of the People.
Emilio Gentile[ edit ] Italian historian of fascism Emilio Gentile described fascism in as the "sacralization of politics" through totalitarian methods  and argued the following ten constituent elements: James Gregor[ edit ] A professor of political science emeritus at the U.
He has denied that fascism is "right-wing extremism. The core myth that inspires this project is that only a populist, trans-class movement of purifying, cathartic national rebirth palingenesis can stem the tide of decadence  Griffin writes that a broad scholarly consensus developed in English-speaking social sciences during the s, around the following definition of fascism: As such it is an ideology deeply bound up with modernization and modernity, one which has assumed a considerable variety of external forms to adapt itself to the particular historical and national context in which it appears, and has drawn a wide range of cultural and intellectual currents, both left and right, anti-modern and pro-modern, to articulate itself as a body of ideas, slogans, and doctrine.
In the inter-war period it manifested itself primarily in the form of an elite-led "armed party" which attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to generate a populist mass movement through a liturgical style of politics and a programme of radical policies which promised to overcome a threat posed by international socialism, to end the degeneration affecting the nation under liberalism, and to bring about a radical renewal of its social, political and cultural life as part of what was widely imagined to be the new era being inaugurated in Western civilization.
The core mobilizing myth of fascism which conditions its ideology, propaganda, style of politics and actions is the vision of the nation's imminent rebirth from decadence.
Hayek[ edit ] Classical liberal economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayekin his book The Road to Serfdomargued that socialism and national socialism had similar intellectual roots. Werner Sombart was hailed as a Marxist and persecuted for his beliefs, but when he later rejected internationalism and pacifism in favor of German militarism and nationalism, he became an intellectual force for national socialism early on.
Johann Plengeanother early national socialist intellectual, saw national socialism as a German adaptation of socialism.
Paul Lensch was a socialist politician in the Reichstag who argued for central control of the economy and for militarism that became features of national socialism. He wrote that Western or English liberalism, which includes the ideas of freedom, community, and equality and rule by parliamentary democracy, was anathema in a true Germany, where power should belong to the whole, everyone is given his place, and one either obeys or commands.
Oswald Spengler in his early writings advocated many of the ideas shared by German socialists at this time.
Arthur Moeller van den Brucka patron saint of national socialism, per Hayek, claimed that World War I was a war between liberalism and socialism and that socialism lost.
Like Plenge and Lensch, he saw national socialism as socialism adapted to the German character and undefiled by Western ideas of liberalism.Essay terms explained Study guide Understanding the meaning of these directive words is a vital first step in producing your essay.
This glossary provides definitions of some of the more typical words that you may come across in an essay question. Please note that these definitions are meant to provide general, rather than exact guidance.
Writing a Case Study 3. Writing an Annotated Bibliography 4. Presentation 1. Definition Essay Samples. Using dictionary definitions to write your essay won’t cut it. Check out our examples of definition essays to grasp what it really means to write one.
Fixed Ammunition - Ammunition in which the cartridge case is attached to the projectile, similar to a pistol bullet. This type is usually limited to smaller weapons as the weight becomes prohibitive for hand-worked guns as the caliber increases past about 4 inches ( cm). The following legal definitions are available for your reference.
Please call the FBA office at () , if the word you are looking for is not included. Bore Sighting - Aligning the bore of a gun with the gunsights. For guns that operate only in local control, this is usually achieved by first inserting a bore telescope into the breech of the weapon, as can be seen in the photograph at right.
Definitions of Legal Case Analysis Example If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Legal Case Analysis Example After writing a educational synthesis essay you’ll be asked to combine lots of resources along with suggestions and your voice to explain theme or a position.