Abstract Objective Raising the price of tobacco products is considered one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. In addition to excise taxes, governments are exploring other policies to raise tobacco prices and minimise price dispersion, both within and across price tiers.
Article Beyond excise taxes: In addition to excise taxes, governments are exploring other policies to raise tobacco prices and minimise price dispersion, both within and across price tiers.
We conducted a systematic review to determine how these policies are described, recommended and evaluated in the literature. Data sources We systematically searched six databases and the California Tobacco Control library for English language studies or reports, indexed on or before 18 Decemberthat included a tobacco keyword eg, cigarettepolicy keyword eg, legislation and a price keyword eg, promotion.
We identified abstracts.
Study selection Two coders independently reviewed all abstracts and identified 56 studies or reports that explicitly described a public policy likely to impact the retail price of tobacco products through non-tax means. Data extraction Two coders independently identified tobacco products targeted by policies described, recommendations for implementing policies and empirical assessments of policy impacts.
|B. Design of Dual Income Tax Systems||Wilson Thanks in large part to recently enacted tax cuts, U.|
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|Tax competition: a literature review | Socio-Economic Review | Oxford Academic||Europe, Labor market, social policy and social services, Private sector development, innovation and knowledge-based economy, Research Literature review on taxation, entrepreneurship and collaborative economy Project description Many factors affect entrepreneurship creating the so-called "business environment" or "entrepreneurial ecosystem".|
|The usual cyclicality of U.S. federal fiscal policy||Writing the conclusion What is a review of literature?|
|The Costs of VAT: A Review of the Literature | Richard M Bird - plombier-nemours.com||As this paper outlines, recent economic research suggests that past reductions in top marginal individual income tax rates have had a statistically insignificant impact on growth and its driving factors—labor supply, savings, investment, and productivity growth. However, they have discernibly widened structural budget deficits and exacerbated income inequality.|
Data synthesis The most prevalent non-tax price policies were price promotion restrictions and minimum price laws. Few studies measured the impact of non-tax policies on average prices, price dispersion or disparities in tobacco consumption, but the literature includes suggestions for crafting policies and preparing for legal challenges or tobacco industry opposition.
Conclusions Price-focused evaluations of well-implemented non-tax price policies are needed to determine whether they can deliver on their promise to raise prices, reduce price dispersion and serve as an important complement to excise taxes. Tobacco Control, 25 4.Tax Policy and Level of Voluntary Compliance among SMEs Small taxpayers under the regular system of taxation are discriminated against, since the compliance requirements, cost of compliance and tax rate are the same for both small and large enterprises.
1 Chapter-I INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE INTRODUCTION The ‘taxation’ was born and shaped with civilization. The structure and complexity of the tax . Beyond excise taxes: a systematic review of literature on non-tax policy approaches to raising tobacco product prices.
Shelley D Golden 1, cigarette), policy keyword (eg, legislation) and a price keyword (eg, promotion). We identified abstracts.
In this paper, we present a review of tax research. We survey four main areas of the literature: (1) the informational role of income tax expense reported for financial accounting, (2) corporate. Tax Rates and Economic Growth Jane G.
Gravelle Senior Specialist in Economic Policy tax rates. A review of statistical evidence suggests that both labor supply and savings and investment are relatively insensitive to tax rates.
Small effects arise in part because of offsetting income and Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Urban. A literature review can be a precursor to the introduction of a research paper, or it can be an entire paper in itself, acting as the first stage of large research projects and allowing the supervisor to ascertain that the student is on the correct path.