Wary of confronting powerful Spain directly, Elizabeth secretly supported English seamen who raided Spanish settlements in the Western Hemisphere and captured their treasure ships. More than fifty years after Magellan circumnavigated the globe, Drake duplicated the feat following attacks against Spanish ports on the west coast of South America —
In the early years of what later became the United States, Christian religious groups played an influential role in each of the British colonies, and most attempted to enforce strict religious observance through both colony governments and local town rules.
Most attempted to enforce strict religious observance. Laws mandated that everyone attend a house of worship and pay taxes that funded the salaries of ministers.
Although most colonists considered themselves Christians, this did not mean that they lived Virginia: early colonization development essay a culture of religious unity. Instead, differing Christian groups often believed that their own practices and faiths provided unique values that needed protection against those who disagreed, driving a need for rule and regulation.
In Great Britain, the Protestant Anglican church had split into bitter divisions among traditional Anglicans and the reforming Puritans, contributing to an English civil war in the s. In the British colonies, differences among Puritan and Anglican remained.
Between and Anglicanism and Congregationalism, an offshoot of the English Puritan movement, established themselves as the main organized denominations in the majority of the colonies.
In some areas, women accounted for no more than a quarter of the population, and given the relatively small number of conventional households and the chronic shortage of clergymen, religious life was haphazard and irregular for most. The fear of such practices can by gauged by the famous trials held in Salem, Massachusetts, in and As we might expect, established clergy discouraged these explorations.
In turn, as the colonies became more settled, the influence of the clergy and their churches grew. Slavery—which was also firmly established and institutionalized between the s and the s—was also shaped by religion.
If they received any Christian religious instructions, it was, more often than not, from their owners rather than in Sunday school. Local variations in Protestant practices and ethnic differences among the white settlers did foster a religious diversity. Wide distances, poor communication and transportation, bad weather, and the clerical shortage dictated religious variety from town to town and from region to region.
With French Huguenots, Catholics, Jews, Dutch Calvinists, German Reformed pietists, Scottish Presbyterians, Baptists, Quakers, and other denominations arriving in growing numbers, most colonies with Anglican or Congregational establishments had little choice but to display some degree of religious tolerance.
Only in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania was toleration rooted in principle rather than expedience. The meetinghouse, which served secular functions as well as religious, was a small wood building located in the center of town.
People sat on hard wooden benches for most of the day, which was how long the church services usually lasted. These meeting houses became bigger and much less crude as the population grew after the s. Steeples grew, bells were introduced, and some churches grew big enough to host as many as one thousand worshippers.
After the s, with many more churches and clerical bodies emerging, religion in New England became more organized and attendance more uniformly enforced.
In even sharper contrast to the other colonies, in New England most newborns were baptized by the church, and church attendance rose in some areas to 70 percent of the adult population.
The New England colonists—with the exception of Rhode Island—were predominantly Puritans, who, by and large, led strict religious lives. The clergy was highly educated and devoted to the study and teaching of both Scripture and the natural sciences. The Puritan leadership and gentry, especially in Massachusetts and Connecticut, integrated their version of Protestantism into their political structure.
Government in these colonies contained elements of theocracy, asserting that leaders and officials derived that authority from divine guidance and that civil authority ought to be used to enforce religious conformity. Their laws assumed that citizens who strayed away from conventional religious customs were a threat to civil order and should be punished for their nonconformity.
Despite many affinities with the established Church of England, New England churches operated quite differently from the older Anglican system in England. Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut had no church courts to levy fines on religious offenders, leaving that function to the civil magistrates.
In those colonies, the civil government dealt harshly with religious dissenters, exiling the likes of Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams for their outspoken criticism of Puritanism, and whipping Baptists or cropping the ears of Quakers for their determined efforts to proselytize.
|Virginia: Early Colonization & Development | Essay Example||Early European Exploration and Colonization.|
The Toleration Act, passed by the English Parliament ingave Quakers and several other denominations the right to build churches and to conduct public worship in the colonies.
Mid-Atlantic and Southern Colonies Inhabitants of the middle and southern colonies went to churches whose style and decoration look more familiar to modern Americans than the plain New England meeting houses.
They, too, would sit in church for most of the day on Sunday. Afteras remote outposts grew into towns and backwoods settlements became bustling commercial centers, Southern churches grew in size and splendor.
Church attendance, abysmal as it was in the early days of the colonial period, became more consistent after Like Virginia, Massachusetts Bay was settled by Europeans. Both settlements struggled to survive at first.
They both also encountered natives living there before they arrived. In Virginia there were the Algonquians and in Massachusetts Bay there was a /5(9).
The first English settlers in Jamestown, Virginia, who arrived in , were eager to find gold and silver. Instead they found sickness and disease. Eventually, these colonists learned how to survive in their new environment, and by the middle of the seventeenth century they discovered that their.
At this point, the Virginia colonists needed a source of revenue to aid them in the development of their colony. The colonists realized that they were not going to find gold in Virginia so they desperately searched for something else. Free colonial virginia papers, essays, and research papers. Powerful Essays.
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Social and Economic Development in Colonial Virginia in the 's (From Jamestown to Jefferson, 25). The Church of England was the primary church in colonial Virginia and in the early days of the colony attendance at an .
Essay on Colonial America Essay on Colonial America. The American colonial conquest began in the late 15 th century with the first voyages discovery of the “New World” and ended in the 19 th century. Most European countries developed colonies for many reasons chief among them being economic gain.
US History Early Colonization. Unit 1: Test Quick Review. Below is a quick review guide for the upcoming unit test - US History Early Colonization introduction. This review guide is intended to provide an overview of general topics that may be on the test.