Effective programming also requires organizational principles that can guide us in formulating the overall design of a program. In particular, we need strategies to help us structure large systems to be modular, meaning that they divide naturally into coherent parts that can be separately developed and maintained. One powerful technique for creating modular programs is to incorporate data that may change state over time. In this way, a single data object can represent something that evolves independently of the rest of the program.
Definition[ edit ] In neoclassical economics theory, labor market discrimination is defined as the different treatment of two equally qualified individuals on account of their genderrace agedisabilityreligionetc.
Discrimination is harmful since it affects the economic outcomes Week 8 assignment organizational behavior equally productive workers directly and indirectly through feedback effects.
Differences in outcomes such as earnings, job placement that cannot be attributed to worker qualifications are attributed to discriminatory treatment. It is important to note that the process is as important as the outcomes.
Civil Rights Act ofthe movement towards equality has slowed down after the mids, especially more in gender terms than racial terms. Many studies find that qualification differences do not explain more than a portion of the earnings differences.
The portion of the earnings gap that cannot be explained by qualifications is then attributed to discrimination. One prominent formal procedure for identifying the explained and unexplained portions of the gender wage differentials or wage gap is the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition procedure.
This approach has the advantage of studying economic outcomes of groups with very similar qualifications. However, it is difficult to determine the extent to which this is the result of racial discrimination. Although the gap in earnings between men and women was very small immediately after graduation, it widened in 15 years to the point that women earned 60 percent of what men earned.
Even after factoring in women's choice of working for fewer hours, and worker qualifications and other factors, such as grades in law school and detailed work history data, in men were ahead of women by 11 percent in their earnings, which might be attributed to discrimination.
Other studies on relatively homogeneous group of college graduates produced a similar unexplained gap, even for the highly educated women, such as Harvard MBAs in the United States. One such study focused on gender wage differences in between the college graduates.
The researchers took college major, GPA grade point average and the educational institution the graduates attended into consideration. Yet, even after these factors were accounted for, there remained a percent pay gap based on gender.
Another study based on a survey of all college graduates had similar results for black and white women regarding gender differences in earnings. However, the results of earnings were mixed for Hispanic and Asian women when their earnings were compared to white, non-Hispanic men.
A study looked at Harvard graduates. The results showed 30 percent of the wage gap was unexplained. Therefore, although not all of the unexplained gaps attribute to discrimination, the results of the studies signal gender discrimination, even if these women are highly educated.
Human capitalists argue that measurement and data problems contribute to this unexplained gap. In order to examine racial discrimination, the Urban Institute relied on a matched pairs study.
The job position was entry-level. Thus, they matched pairs of black and white men and pairs of Hispanic and non-Hispanic men as testers. The testers applied for the advertised openings for the new positions.
In addition, they went through training sessions for the interviews. If both people in the pair were offered the job or if both were rejected, the conclusion was there was no discrimination.
However, if one person from the pair was given the job while the other was rejected, then they concluded there was discrimination. The Institute found out that black men were three times more likely to be refused for a job compared to white men; while the Hispanic men were three times more likely to be discriminated.
The percentage for interviews was by 10 percent more for the white testers. Among those interviewed, 50 percent white women were offered the job, while only 11 percent of black candidates received jobs offers.
The white testers were also offered higher pay for the same job in cases where the same job was also offered to the black testers.
The pay difference was 15 cents per hour more for the white candidates. Furthermore, black women were "steered" toward lower level jobs, while white women were even given some higher-level positions that were unadvertised.ONLINE COURSE SYLLABUS BSA Organizational Behavior and Leadership Instructors are solely responsible for the syllabus and their assignments and for communicating any changes in writing.
Write clearly and concisely about organizational behavior using proper writing mechanics Course Home Work aims to provide quality study notes and tutorials to the students of BUS Week 5 Assignment 2 Strayer Latest in order to ace their studies. Instead of forgetful behavior, this style of parenting will create kids that learn to remember, be responsible and accountable for their actions.
Organizational behavior is the field of study that investigates how organizational structures affect behavior within organizations. It studies the impact individuals, groups, and structures have on human behavior within organizations. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management.
International Leadership and Organizational Behavior from Università Bocconi. Leaders in business and non-profit organizations increasingly work across national borders and in multi-cultural environments. You may work regularly with customers or. Organizational behavior is the systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within the organizations where they work.
OB matters for your career, and successful companies tend to employ effective OB practices.